Do you have confusion with a lot of hosting terms?
This is unavoidable when you are new to the hosting field. Probably most of the people end up in not getting the answers.
Here is the list of Question and answers which can help you to understand the terms. I have collected more than 100 questions and answers related to web hosting industry.
Most of them can't be found anywhere on the internet as the hosting companies internally use it. I am sharing those secrets with you.
1. What is the web hosting?
Web hosting is a location where people store their website to access it.
The location consists of system and internet connection, other hardware and software to provide the service.
2. What is the term hosting service provider?
The hosting service providers are organizations who provide systems to store the website and access it anywhere from the world.
You store your website files on the system provided by hosting service provider. You can access it anywhere from the world.
The hosting provider gives you internet connectivity to access all your files. Everyone can access the data in the format of the website.
Only you have the control over the modification of your web files.
3. What is Cpanel?
Cpanel is a web based interface which gives control to access and manages the websites from creating the email to managing subdomain.
Also, Cpanel provides a lot more facilities other than the services mentioned above.
It is a simple interface; even non-professional can work with the Cpanel and can maintain their website themselves.
4. What is Data Center?
A data center is a place where a lot of storage systems and servers are implemented by the hosting service provider to offer service to more people.
A lot of highly configured servers with various configuration and high-level memory storages are combined to provide the service.
The data center has high power connection and high bandwidth internet connection to provide faster and 24*7 service.
5. What are Uptime and downtime in web hosting?
You often watch that the website hosting provider mentions 99.9% uptime. It is the amount of time your site is online without going offline.
Downtime is the amount of time your website is offline.
The uptime had difference and mentioned as 99.0%, 99.9%, 99.99% and 100%
Most of the companies provide 99.9% uptime. It means the site has the down time of 1.44 minutes per day.
Some even offer 99.99%. There the site has 8.66seconds of downtime per day.
Now cloud hosting service providers say that they can give 100% uptime. It is possible by accessing different servers virtually.
6. What is the domain name?
Google refers it as
"the part of a network address which identifies it as belonging to a particular domain."
Domain name refers to the IP of the system which hosted the website.
7. What is domain name registration?
Domain name registration is a process of registering a name to represent IP address of system which contains your website. Remembering a name is easier than remembering the numbers.
Domain gives you an identity and easier access to your website by typing the name.
8. What is DNS?
The DNS stands for domain name system. It contains the database of IP addresses and corresponding domain names.
The DNS server provides the client with the appropriate IP address to the domain name.
When you request a website with its domain name, first it goes to DNS.
The DNS resolves the domain name and gives the IP address of the domain.
9. What is DHCP server?
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol assigns a temporary IP to the client within the range of number system so that it can access the internet with its identity.
The system which gained IP from DHCP is called DHCP client. When you connect a system to the Internet first, it is related to DHCP to obtain an IP address.
After allocating IP, the DHCP provides the information to DNS server.
10. What are all the hosting types?
The hosting types are
- Free Hosting
- Shared Hosting
- Virtual Private Server
- [Cloud Hosting](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing" target="_blank)
- Dedicated hosting
11. What is free hosting?
The hosting is free of charge for free hosting, but the provider may place ads on your website. You have to buy a domain name.
The free hosting is slow, and it goes down frequently. You get slight space to host your website.
12. What is shared hosting?
Shared hosting method, The domain shares a single server with other domains. Each domain has limits for bandwidth, FTP, Disk space, email accounts, and database.
13. What is bandwidth?
Bandwidth is the amount data and traffic allowed to transfer between user and server.
Most hosting provider provides unlimited bandwidth to the hosted domains based on the plan they choose.
14. What is FTP?
FTP is the client-server protocol used to transfer file between client and server on the network. The user can upload, download, delete, move and rename the file on the server.
15. What is Database?
A database is a collection of associated data created and maintained by the application of the system to process it quickly.
16. What is IP?
IP is the acronym of Internet Protocol. It is the method by which the data packet is sent from one computer to the internet. Each computer on the web at least has one IP address.
17. What is dedicated hosting?
A dedicated server is fully dedicated to only one organization, and it does not share its resource to any other organization. The dedicated server has its unique IP address.
18. What is collocated hosting?
You buy your server and place it on a hosting service provider, and the hosting service provider maintains the server by providing power supplies, internet connection and other physical requirements for the server.
19. What is VPS server?
In the dedicated server, the server is divided into some virtual private server by allocating resources.
It acts same as the dedicated server and has the unique IP address. The user has the root access to the server.
20. What is WHCMS?
WHCMS is a billing solution for your web hosting service, Where you can manage all your domains, products, orders, clients, and payments.
You can manage your support tickets manually or automatically.
21. What is Cloud Linux?
Cloud Linux is a server operating system specially developed for high-end traffic server. It keeps system stability and improves the security of the web files
22. What is a fully managed server?
In a fully managed server, hosting service provider does everything for the domain owner including managing panel and billing.
23. What is the Semi-managed server?
In the semi-managed server, the hosting service provider only installs the website. Remaining all other things should be managed by the domain owner.
24. What is email hosting?
Email hosting is an internet hosting service that operates email servers which provide the premium email which has more features other than free email hosting service which inserts add and provides small memory space?
25. What are POP3 and IMAP protocol?
Internet message access protocol is email protocol which is used to access the message in the server from a local client. IMAP and POP3 are the most used protocol.
26. What is Linux server?
A Linux server is a system installed with Linux operating system which gives the unmetered performance to business applications and high traffic websites.
27. What is Windows server?
Windows Server is a group of systems powered by Windows operating system which gives unleashed performance to online applications, database, and communications.
28. What is WHM?
WHM is same as of WHMCS. WHMCS is for resellers. But WHM is for hosting companies purpose. Both does the same job.
Using WHM you can install Cpanel and allocate spaces to the user account.
29. What is SMTP?
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is a TCP/IP protocol; It is used to send mail from email client to the server, or it is used when one email server mail to another email server.
30. What is Wordpress?
Wordpress is an opens source website which provides the user with an environment to create website and blogs without the knowledge of coding by just providing the powerful tools.
Wordpress is developed on PHP and people from all over the world are working on it to add more feature and improve it more.
31. What is PHPmyadmin?
[PHPmyadmin](https://www.phpmyadmin.net/" target="_blank) is open source tool developed to create and maintain my SQL database or Maria DB using a web browser. The tool has built on PHP
32. What is Softaculous?
Softaculous an auto script installer, which installs required scripts in a single click and they are adding more scripts to their library.
33. What is Firewall?
A firewall is network security system which prevents unauthorized access and controls the network traffic between trusted network based on the set of rules.
Acting as the barrier between trusted network and untrusted network. The term is created by the professionals in network security.
34. What is IPv4?
IPv4 is the 4th version of IP. Which is widely used in data communication? IPv4 is used in pocket switching layers such as Ethernet.
It gives an Identity to the system to connect it for data transfer.
35. What is IPv6?
IPv6 is the sixth version of Internet protocol, which is created to replace current IPv4. It is developed to manage the growth in the amount users of the web.
IPv6 is 128 bits, and IPv4 is only 32 bits.
IPv4 does not have sufficient unique address. It has 4.3 billion unique addresses. However, it is not enough for users.
IPv6 provides the unique IP address of 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 which is more than enough for few centuries.
Systems automatically detect IPv6 and make advantage of it.
36. What is name server?
The name server is a system connected to the internet permanently, and it translates a domain name into IP addresses.
When you host a domain, it requires two name servers configured.
37. What is Drupal?
Drupal is an open source software used by many individuals to create many types of websites. It does not require any coding knowledge.
It provides tools and framework to develop a website.
38. What is open cart?
Open Cart is an online solution which provides templates, payment gateway integrations, product review and product rating.
Where you can select a theme and add unlimited products, you have multiple choice for payment gateway integration.
You can add various shipping methods, different currencies, and languages.
39. What is Joomla?
Joomla is an online content management system which helps to create dynamic websites and powerful online application. Many extensions are written for Joomla.
40. What is a CMS?
Content management system is a set of software or applications used to create and maintain electronic content.
Many CMS offer GUI based control which you can access through web browsers.
41. What is site lock?
Sitelock is an online security software which scans your website for malware and loopholes which attacker can try to use.
It removes the malware from the sites and alerts you in the case of any hack or security threat.
42. What is SSL?
The SSL stands for secure socket layer which ensures the private connection between the browser and a web server by encrypting the data transfer. It prevents intruders to steal your data.
43. What is CDN?
CDN is the acronym of the content delivery network. It distributes the content to various networks through the web.
It helps the website which has high traffic and usage rate. The request of the site is redirected to nearby CDN server to give the fast response.
44. What is migration?
Migration is moving your domain from one hosting service provider to another hosting service provider. It may cause downtime.
However, so many hosting providers migrate the domain without downtime.
45. What is domain transfer?
Domain transfer is transferring your domain from your domain registrar to new registrar or another register. After the transfer, the another registrar maintain the domain information.
Only the domains which are 60 days old from the date buying from the previous registrar can be the transferred.
46. What is domain renewal?
The process of paying the charge to maintain it and to ensure the domain registration information is called domain renewal.
You can register the domain for specific years with domain name registrar.
47. What is SSD?
SSD stands for solid state drive. It is flash non-volatile memory, which can be used to store persistent data.
SSD has microchips to store the data. It does not have any moving part, so it works faster.
48. What is HDD?
HDD stands for the hard disc drive. It uses the magnetic plate to store data. It has a moving head to read and write data. It works slower than SSD.
Datacenter's widely use it due to low cost.
49. What is Clef?
Clef is two-step authentication process, and it allows the user to login to your website by simply showing the smartphone to the display.
There is no on forgetting password. Clef increases the registration conversion by an average of 30%
50. What is SPDY?
SPDY is used by Google to speed up the web load and reduce the time taken for web loading. It enables the process through compression and priorities.
It reduces the web page load time nearly 50%.
51. What is RailGun?
RailGun is a premium technology which is software installed on your host. It stores your website content to 40 data centers across the world.
When a user requests your websites, the RailGun software provides the content with the nearby data center to the user location.
52. What is Plesk?
Plesk is a web hosting based software. It allows the user to create email accounts, reseller accounts and manage the number of virtual hosting on a single server.
It automates many processes and reduces the cost of the maintenance to the user.
53. What is IP firewall?
IP firewall is a free BSD IP packet filter and traffic manager. It allows the user control the traffic. Also, allows blocking set of IPs to visit the site.
54. What is the backup?
Backup is copying you the data or database and store it another medium. In the case of any failure or data corruption, the stored data can be used.
Backup is a regular activity performed in the specific interval at many data storages.
55. What is malware scanner?
Malware scanner is a software consist of malware detection function. It scans all files to detect malware. It alerts you on threat and malware scripts.
It protects the system by often monitoring it.
56. What is meme cache technology?
Memcache is a general-purpose distributed memory system. Which is used to speed up the dynamic database by caching data and object in Random Access Memory to reduce reading the database often?
57. What is PHP?
PHP is an acronym of Hypertext preprocessor. It is an open source web development script widely used by many web developers. It can be easily embedded in HTML.
PHP almost satisfies all the requirements for web development.
58. What is Rocket Loader?
It gives faster access to the web content to the user.
59. What is Payment Gateway?
The payment gateway is an online payment solution, which accepts online payment modes, including credit card, debit card, and other payment wallets.
It takes responsibility for online transaction in using a credit card and debit cards.
Payment gateway provides high-level security for transactions.
60. What is unmanaged service?
In unmanaged hosting, the hosting service provider gives Raw server only. Other than OS we have to install everything including software and plug-ins.
61. What is CageFs security?
CageFS is virtualized file system built in with cloud Linux. It allocates and limits the resource for each user in the system. However, the user is not aware of the presence of CageFs.
They cannot see the server information. Each user is in a cage, but they do not fall as they are in the cage.
It prevents others to see other users process.
62. What is Reseller Hosting?
Reseller hosting is a hosting service where the user can sell his allocated hosting resource with his brand name behalf of his/her service provider.
63. What is SSL enabled IP?
SSL certificates are issued to the domain, and it encrypts the data transfer with the domain name only. It does not provide encryption to IP addresses.
However, SSL certificates can be given to Public IP address those who want to use their IP address Publicly.
64.What is Private DNS?
Private DNS is domain name server that is available to its associated domain only. VPS, Dedicated server can use the Private DNS. It is not related to hosting service provider DNS.
generic DNS ns1.serviceprovider.com
However, private DNS look like ns1.yourdomain.com
65. What is domain locking?
The domain lock is protecting feature provided by domain name registrar to its client.
It prevents unauthorized transfer of the domain from one registrar to another registrar and modifies the information about the domain name.
66. What is dedicated IP?
A dedicated IP address is unique IP address fully owned by the single hosting account. The address cannot be used to other accounts.
67. What is Dos?
A denial of service attack is an attack made to a destination computer to interrupt its service with heavy traffic and does not allow the genuine user to access the service.
Dos is performed by one computer and one internet connection.
68. What is DDoS?
DDoS is an acronym of distributed denial of service. It is an attack on destination computer with heavy traffic to interrupt the service.
It is performed by injecting Trojan virus to multiple systems and enable all those to access the target server at the particular system.
69. What is cluster?
A cluster is a software program which allows the server computer to work as a group to increase the performance of the servers and ensure the high availability.
70. What is email filter?
An email filter is a program which categories the email into different folders. It provides the option to categorize your emails into your required categories like Personal, social, promotion, subscription.
71. What is Apache Spam Assassin?
Spam Assassin is an email service that checks the incoming emails for spam symptoms. It uses Bayesian spam filtering and network analysis to find out the spam mail.
If it the mail matches the spam criteria, it will be discarded.
72. What is Boxtrapper?
Boxtrapper is a powerful anti-spam tool used in Cpanel to prevent spam emails. The sender who is not in your whitelist needs to reply to a verification mail.
73. What is Blacklist?
Blacklist a mechanism which denies access to a source from blocked list. The block list contains the information of users list or IP list which is trying to access the source with intending to spam.
We can block those IPs from accessing the source by blacklisting it.
74. What is the white list?
The Whitelist is the index consisting of IPs which are genuine and are approved to get full access to the source.
75. What is email greylisting?
Mail Transfer Agent uses temporary mail rejecting method called "email greylisting." It rejects mail from unknown sources temporarily.
If the mail is appropriate, the sender will again try to deliver the message.
After some time, it accepts the mail from the originator.
76. What is disc space?
The disc space is the amount of computer storage on devices like the Hard disk, SSD, USB drive and RAM.
77. What is domain extension?
The domain extension is the suffix of the domain name which represents the purpose of the website.
Example domain extensions are .in, .com, .org, .net
78. What is CCTLD?
CCTLD is the acronym of country code top level domain. Which is used to represent the country with its TLD? For example .au, .in, .fi are the CCTLD.
79. What is the theme?
The theme is the User Interface used in the control panel. This theme can give you custom view for the user.
80. What is Package in WHM?
A package is a set of defined feature, i.e., add-ons which decide what user can access in their hosting package. The service provider shows you the package with its features.
Based on the package User get features. If the price is high the more feature, you have.
81. What is Feature Manager in WHM?
Feature manager is an Interface, which allocates accessible features in Cpanel for the specific packages.
Feature manager assigns the options in control panel. It decides which feature can be accessed by control panel which control should be prevented
82. What is SQL?
SQL is the acronym for Structured Query Language, which is used to communicate the database. We can manipulate the data in the database using SQL.
It is the standard language for Relational Database Management System.
83. What is MySQL?
MySQL is an open-source database management software developed by Oracle Corporation. It is used to handle the operations in the database.
It has embedded with PHP for websites which have the requirement for database operations.
84. What is MSSQL?
It is Microsoft SQL server which is a relational database management system. It stores the data and maintains the database.
It is relational database management system, and the data are stored in a table format which has rows and columns.
85.What is subdomain?
A subdomain is the smaller part of the vast domain. It contains root domain name. However, replaces the www with its name.
86. What is addon domain?
An Addon domain is a new website with unique content and new domain name. It is hosted on the same account.
You can add multiple domains to your account based on your plan.
87. What is a redirect?
An URL redirect is a World wide web function which forward one website URL to another website URL.
It redirects users and search engines from original page to another web page.
The common URL redirects are 301 and 302. Here 301 represents permanent move, and 302 represents the temporary move of the URL.
88. What is a web disc?
Web Disc or Web Dav is a protocol that helps to access your files easily on the internet from your desktop.
It allows you to create a folder on your computer that connects to your hosting account directly and allows you to manage and control files on the web as same as stored on your local computer.
89. What is SPF?
The Sender Policy Framework is a protocol which helps to fight spam mailing. It decides the IP/hostname from that email can be sent to destination.
The SPF has TXT record in DNS zone file. It contains the list of IP/hostnames from where the mail can be sent.
90. What is DKIM?
Domain Keys Identified Mail is a method to find and prevent mail spoofing and forged mail. It gives a method to sender and receiver to check the mail that it is sent from the authorized domain.
Also, it ensures that the email is not altered during the transit
91. What is the .htaccess file?
The .htaccess file is a configuration file placed in the web directory. This is called as hypertext access file.
It is used in the web directory, and it controls the URL redirection, URL shortening, and content password protection.
92. What is php.ini File?
The Php.ini file is a configuration file which is required by the application which needs PHP to run.
The changes in PHP settings can be made through PHP.in file.
93.What is a Virus?
A computer virus is a piece of program which affects the systems files, CPU usage, Memory usage and corrupt data.
It multiplies itself and modify the programs and make changes in the system without user knowledge.
94. What is a quarantine?
Quarantine is the space used by anti-virus software to isolate the virus programs in it. The virus in the Quarantine is no longer active.
95. What is a spam mail?
Email spamming is mailing the same copy of the mail to the group of people who does not request for it.
It forces people to receive and see the mail without their permission.
Below criteria define mail Spam
Anonymity - sender of the mail hides his identity
Mass mailing- Mailing to group of people
Unasked - mailing to people who do not request for it.
96. What is cron?
A cron is a task scheduler in Linux, which schedules the task which has to be executed shortly.
Mostly it is used for regular scheduling periodic tasks.
97.What is the daemon?
Daemon is the program which runs under the operating system secretly rather than run under the direct user.
It is waiting to be activated by an event or condition to occur.
98.What is Script?
A script is a program or set of instructions that are carried out by another program rather than processed by the computer process.
99.What is a Suspicious file?
Suspicious files are the files which cannot be disinfected during the scan. They have the unusual characteristics.
100. What is a remote server?
A Remote server is a server which you can access from another computer or server from a distance.
You can get almost all access to the remote server from a distance.
101. What is a Fatal Error?
The Fatal error is a mistake that makes the program to abort and returns the user to the operating system.
When this error occurs, you lose all those data which is associated with the program.
102. What is Password?
A password is a set of characters which is used to gain access to the computer, file or any other system-oriented activity.
It is the secret string of characters used with a unique ID called username.
103. What is email client application?
The email client is a computer program which allows the user to send, receive and manage their mail. The mail works in a client-server architecture the email client works as a customer and sends the mail to the server.
The server then reroutes the mail to another client which is the actual recipient.
104. What is CRM?
CRM is the acronym of Customer Relationship Management. It is the method used by companies to track and analyze their customer history to improve the communication to retain the client.
105. What is CMS?
Content Management System is a software which helps the user to create and manage digital content through online. E.g CMS are Wordpress and Joomla.
106. What is MVC?
Model View Controller is an architectural pattern in the .net framework which divides applications into three parts.
They are Model, View, Controller.
107. What is config File?
A configuration file is a file which contains the configuration information regarding parameters for a program. When the program is initiated, the program will consult the config file for parameters.
108.What is hacking?
Hacking is an activity in which an anonymous user gains unauthorized access to the system to obtain full control over the system. The hacker uses the system for his purpose.
109. What is security?
Security is providing protection to a particular thing to prevent unauthorized access, damage and vulnerability to this stuff. Security provides the guarantee.
110. What is Error Log?
The error log is a record of the history of errors which occurred during the server operation, table corruption. The error log message has two variable 1 and 0.
If server variable is one, then the log is entered into error logs.
111. What is Directory Privacy?
Directory Privacy is the feature which denies access to other people who try to view the directory. When they attempt to the directory, the system will ask for username and password.
112. What is a site publisher?
The publisher of a website is a person's contacts details who owns or maintains the domain name. It provides the information about hosting details and the owner phone number and contact information.
113. What is a web builder?
Website Builder is a tool provided by web hosting companies. It helps the user to build websites without manual coding.
Creating the basic website with the website builder is easy.
114. What is the error?
The error is a mistake that occurs during the computer operations and makes the system not to function correctly.
There are two types of errors.
Hardware error and software errors.
115. What is IP blocker?
IP blocker is a function which is used in mail, web and servers to prevent connections from undesirable sources like affected host, email servers and suspected IP address.
Here the user can block specific IP address or range of IP address.
116.What is Mod Security?
Mod security is an open source web-based firewall. It is supported by all web servers like Apache, Nginx and IIS.
117. What is SSH Access?
Secure Shell is a Unix-based command interface to get secure access to the remote server. It has three utilities Slogin, ssh and SCP. All SSH commands are encrypted and secured.
118.What is Leech Protection?
The user posts their username and password publically so that unauthorized user can access the Cpanel. It is called Leeching.
Cpanel provides the protection against leaching by limiting the number of time a user can login for a specific period.
The user can log in four times per two hours. If anybody tries to fifth login time. Then they will be redirected to another URL.
An alert message will be sent to admin.
It is called leech protection.
119. What is Hotlink Protection?
Hotlink protection is a method to protect your bandwidth by limiting the access of your web file for other websites. For example.
A site has an image and another website request the file.
When Hotlink is enabled, the requested website cannot load the picture from your site.
120. What is Perl?
Perl is a general-purpose programming language initially used for text manipulation, but now it is used for various purpose.
Perl is used in many tasks like network programming, system administration, web development and more.
121. What is Apache Handler?
Apache handler is a representation of how certain files types has to be handled in Apache. On seeing the file type, Apache performs the action on that file from its inbuilt handler.
122. What are web hosting packages?
A web hosting package is set of features which include the database, domains, subdomains, addon domains, disc space, bandwidth, FTP accounts, email accounts and add-ons which are available with a specific resource limitation.
The user can select the package from available packages one or they configure the new package.
I hope this will give you some knowledge about hosting and the terminologies evolving around it. More question will be added in the future.
If you more question, ask in the comment.
We will add it to the glossary. To gain deep knowledge go through the blog and I am sure you can get a lot of information from that.